Questions and answers

Are dairy co-operatives better than private milk companies?
A large proportion of the milk produced in the west is processed by co-operatives. Co-operatives are dairy companies that are jointly owned by the member dairy farmers. Half the companies in Europe’s dairy company top 10 are co-operatives. Co-operatives try to sell milk and dairy products on the market at the highest possible price on behalf of their members, the dairy farmers.
Do we drink all the milk that is produced?
The bulk of this annual production (over two-thirds) is consumed as milk, yoghurt, cream and desserts by people all over the world. Between 10 and 15 per cent of all milk is processed into cheese. The remaining share, some 20 to 25 per cent, is used to make milk powder, butter, condensed milk, caseinate, whey powder, lactose and a wide variety of other products.
Does everyone all over the world use dairy produce?
Not everyone, but certainly very many people. Dairy is an inseparable part of daily life, particularly in western countries. Cows are the main source of milk, but other animals such as buffalos, goats and sheep also give milk that is used for drinking or to make products. In many countries in Africa and Asia people use less dairy than in western countries.
Does milk contain carbohydrates?
Yes. Carbohydrates are mainly a source of energy. In addition, we need them to maintain a healthy hormone balance.
Does milk contain fats?
Yes. Many dairy products with varying fat contents are available on the market. Everyone can make their own choice. For instance, people who want to eat less fat can opt for semi-skimmed and low-fat dairy products. The fat content in cow’s milk varies. It depends on, among other things, the season, the feed given to the cow and the breed of cow. Milk fat is a natural fat which contains a great many different fatty acids.
Does milk contain protein?
Yes. The composition of protein in milk precisely matches what the body needs. We need protein to generate energy, to grow and to repair muscles and organs. Protein also has a positive effect on blood pressure and the health of our skin.
Does milk fit in with a healthy diet?
Absolutely. Milk has extraordinary nutritional value: few nutrients contain such a wide range of vital nutrients as milk compared to the amount of energy. That’s why milk makes an important contribution towards the intake of many nutrients and fits in with a healthy diet.
How can the average milk consumption be calculated? Are kilos of cheese and litres of milk simply added together?
All dairy products can be converted into ‘milk equivalents’. The milk equivalent is a unit that expresses how many kilos of milk are needed to make a kilo of a specific product.
How cool should milk be kept?
The best temperature for keeping milk is 4°C.
How did co-operatives originate?
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there were virtually no facilities for chilling milk. Consequently, the product was highly perishable. So individual dairy farmers found themselves in a highly vulnerable position vis-à-vis the purchaser. <br><br>Dairy farmers therefore started to pool their resources in co-operatives in order to give milk a longer life by turning it into butter, cheese and milk powder at their joint expense and risk. Such co-operatives also enabled the farmers to make costly investments in milk processing equipment and distribution channels.
How do you keep milk in tropical conditions?
Milk powder and concentrated milk are highly suitable for these conditions. They contain the same vital nutrients as fresh milk and can be kept outside the fridge for a long time. If you dissolve milk powder in water, you get milk.
How does a co-operative work?
Co-operatives try to realise the highest possible milk price on the market for their members. The suppliers of the milk, the dairy farmers, co-own the company. This means that they also provide the co-operative dairy company with equity. In return, they are paid a dividend. The farmers nealy exercise control over the company’s affairs through an Executive and a Supervisory Board. Company profits go to the members of the co-operative, that is, the dairy farmers.
How do the&nbsp;dairy farmer&nbsp;and the dairy factory prevent milk from going off quickly?
That is quite a process. In the first place it is important for the dairy farmer to work hygienically during milking, so that as few bacteria as possible end up in the milk. The milk is then chilled as quickly as possible to inhibit bacteria growth. The milk is heated in the milk processing plant (dairy company) to kill many of the micro-organisms. Milk is a natural product, which is why it is important that consumers also keep the milk well chilled.
How is the total milk production calculated?
The total volume of milk produced by dairy farmers worldwide is easy to measure in kilograms (one litre of milk weighs about 1.03 kilograms). However, milk is also processed into products like yoghurt, desserts, cheese and butter. To control the supply of milk for food production, it is important to know how much milk goes into making the various products. This is done with the aid of milk equivalents. For instance, making one kilo of Gouda cheese requires about 1 kilos of milk. So one kilo of Gouda cheese represents ten milk equivalents.
How long does milk powder stay good?
If kept in the right conditions (cool, dark and dry) milk powder can stay good for years.
How long does milk stay fresh in the fridge after the pack is opened?
An opened pack of milk can be kept in the fridge for about five days. The flavour and quality hardly deteriorate.
How long does milk stay fresh outside the fridge?
Pasteurised milk must never be kept outside the fridge, since it will quickly go off. An unopened pack of sterilised or UHT-treated milk will remain in excellent condition for a few months outside the fridge. After opening, the pack must be kept in the fridge.
How much milk does a person consume on average per year?
In western countries, people eat and drink an average of 240 to 250 kilos of dairy produce per person per year. This is measured in milk equivalents (i.e. the processed quantity of milk). In non-western countries in Asia and Africa, dairy consumption amounts to over 60 kilos per person per year. Dairy consumption in non-western countries is growing faster than it is in the west.
How much milk is produced annually?
Between 650 and 700 billion kilos of milk are produced globally each year (source: FAO Food and Agriculture Organization). Over 550 billion kg is milk from cows. Milk production has undergone a slight upward trend in recent years.
Is a farmer allowed to produce as much milk as he wants?
Milk production in the European Union is governed by restrictions. This milk quota system imposes a maximum limit on the volume of milk and milk fat that dairy farmers are allowed to produce (milk quota). Farmers who produce too much are required to pay a penalty (super levy).
What is a milk equivalent?
Kilos of milk and kilos of cheese cannot simply be added together. Milk equivalents are used to convert the consumption and production of different dairy products into kilos of milk. All dairy products can be calculated back to the quantity of milk required to make the product. To make a kilo of Gouda cheese, for instance, you need about ten kilos of milk. So a single kilo stands for some ten milk equivalents.
What is condensed milk?
Condensed milk is milk in a concentrated form: most, but not all, of the water is removed under high pressure and temperatures. <br>In addition to this evaporated milk, we also offer sweetened condensed milk, to which sugar has been added. <br>As a result of these processes, both products have a thick substance and can be kept outside the fridge for a long time (unopened).<br><br>
What is cow’s milk allergy?
People who have this allergy are oversensitive to the protein contained in milk. It gives them a sore stomach or causes a rash. Products such as yoghurt and quark can also provoke an allergic reaction since they still contain almost all milk proteins.
What is fermentation?
With fermentation, ‘good’ bacteria are added to the milk. This changes the flavour and structure of the milk and ensures that it stays good for longer. Butter, cheese and yoghurt are made of milk via fermentation.
What is lactose intolerance?
Alongside all its valuable nutrients, milk also contains milk sugar or lactose. Some people in the West lack the lactase enzyme that can convert lactose (milk sugar). Drinking milk therefore gives them a sore stomach or diarrhoea. Fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese and butter, do not cause any problems since they no longer contain any lactose.
What is milk powder?
Milk consists largely of water. Milk powder is milk from which this water has been extracted. The powder does however contain all the important nutrients from milk. All you need to do to reconstitute the milk is to add water to the milk powder.
What is the difference between sterilised milk and UHT-treated milk?
With UHT, the milk is heated to a higher temperature, to at least 135°C. This eliminates all harmful micro-organisms. Consequently, UHT milk can be kept for longer than sterilised milk, which is heated to 120°C. Almost all bacteria disappear under this temperature. Sterilised milk and UHT milk can keep for several months, provided the packaging is kept closed.
What minerals are mainly found in milk?
Milk mainly contains calcium. Calcium is necessary to build and maintain bones and teeth. It is also vital for the proper functioning of our muscles and nervous system. When you take in alcohol, caffeine and salt, your body loses calcium and you need to increase your calcium intake. Dairy is the leading source of calcium in the western diet.
What vitamins are contained in milk?
Dairy products are the most important natural source of vitamin B12 in western countries. Vitamin B12 plays a role in the manufacture of red blood cells and helps the nervous system to function properly. All B vitamins are water-soluble, which means the body excretes them relatively quickly. This is why vitamins need to be regularly replenished, preferably daily.
Which country produces the most milk?
In terms of the volume of milk produced on farms, India was the world number one in 2007. The United States came first in terms of the quantity of milk delivered by farmers to dairy plants. New Zealand leads the world in dairy exports.
Which European country produces the most milk?
Germany produces the most milk, followed by France, the United Kingdom, Poland, the Netherlands and Italy.
Which is the biggest dairy company in Europe?
Measured in terms of dairy revenue, the Swiss-based Nestlé is the largest company in Europe, while Danone from France is second. Lactalis, also from France, is number 3. From 2009 FrieslandCampina from the Netherlands also ranks among the top players on this list: number 4. FrieslandCampina was created by the merger of Friesland Foods and Campina. <br><br><br> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>&nbsp;</p></td> <td> <p>Company</p></td> <td> <p align="right">Dairy revenue<br>(mld US$)</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>1</p></td> <td> <p>Nestlé</p></td> <td> <p align="right">25,9</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>2</p></td> <td> <p>Danone</p></td> <td> <p align="right">14,8</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>3</p></td> <td> <p>Lactalis</p></td> <td> <p align="right">12,7</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>4</p></td> <td> <p>FrieslandCampina</p></td> <td> <p align="right">11,2</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>5</p></td> <td> <p>Fonterra</p></td> <td> <p align="right">10,2</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>6</p></td> <td> <p>Dean</p></td> <td> <p align="right">9,7</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>7</p></td> <td> <p>Arla Foods</p></td> <td> <p align="right">8,7</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>8</p></td> <td> <p>DFA</p></td> <td> <p align="right">8,1</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>9</p></td> <td> <p>Kraft</p></td> <td> <p align="right">6,8</p></td></tr> <tr> <td> <p>10</p></td> <td> <p>Unilever</p></td> <td> <p align="right">6,4</p></td></tr></tbody></table><br>
Why does milk go sour?
Despite good hygiene measures and heating, a small number of bacteria always remain behind in milk. Milk, of course, is a natural product – so if it is not properly chilled, bacteria can multiply quickly and literally make the milk go sour. <br><br>At UHT (Ultra High Temperature) or sterilised milk products all bacteria are killed and you can store the product (with closed packaging) outside of the fridge for a long time. After opening the packaging, bacteria can always enter the product and the product&nbsp;will spoil quicker.
Why is milk good for your bones?
Milk contains high levels of calcium, which helps to build and maintain our bones.
Why is milk good for your teeth?
Milk contains high levels of calcium, which promotes strong teeth.